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Although Turkey is situated in large Mediterranean geographical location where climatic conditions are quite temperate. While the coastal areas enjoy milder climates, the inland Anatolian plateau experiences extremes of hot summers and cold winters with limited rainfall.

Turkey receives most of the rainfall in the winter season. In this season, mean temperature usually is below 5°C and there is no too much evaporation. But summer rainfall is very limited and could not be enough to remove water deficit resulted from increased temperature and evaporation.

Taurus Mountains are close to the coast and rain clouds cannot penetrate to the interior part of the country. Rain clouds drop most of their water on the coastal area. As rain clouds pass over the mountains and reach central Anatolia they have no significant capability to produce of rain. In the Eastern region of Anatolia, the elevation of mountains exceeds 2500-3000 m. Northern Black Sea Mountains and Caucasian Mountain hold the rain clouds, and therefore the area is affected by the continental climate with long and very cold winter. Minimum temperatures of -30°C to -38°C are observed in the mountainous areas in the east, and snow may lie on the ground 120 days of the year. Winters are bitterly cold with frequent, heavy snowfall. Villages in thee region remain isolated for several days during winter storms.